June 17, 2014
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have developed a new and more efficient approach to determine the right parameters in selective laser melting (SLM), an additive manufacturing process to print 3-D high-density metal parts.
SLM is a powder-based, additive manufacturing process where a 3-D part is produced, layer-by-layer, using a high-energy laser beam to fuse the metal powder particles. Some SLM applications require parts that are very dense, with less than 1% porosity, as the pores or voids are the weakest part of the material and most likely would result in failure.
But building functional parts and components to specific standards and performance specifications can be challenging because a large number of parameters must be set appropriately. Some of the key parameters include laser power, laser speed, distance between laser scan lines, scanning strategy and powder layer thickness.
LLNL researchers have developed an efficient approach, based on simple simulations and experiments, to identify optimal parameters to print parts with such desired properties as high density. These simulations are used to compute the dimensions of the melt pool, which is the pool of liquid formed when the laser melts the metal powder particles.
"We mine the simulation output to identify important SLM parameters and their values such that the resulting melt pools are just deep enough to melt through the powder into the substrate below," said Chandrika Kamath, an LLNL researcher who is the lead author of the article. "By using the simulations to guide a small number of single-track experiments, we can quickly arrive at parameter values that will likely result in high-density parts."
A cylinder is built using Selective Laser Melting and the island scanning pattern, where the region to be melted is divided into smaller islands that are scanned randomly by the laser.
"We found that the metal density reduces if the speed is too low, due to voids created as a result of keyhole mode laser melting, where the laser drills into the material," Kamath wrote. "At the same time, too high a speed results in insufficient melting. The key is to find the right parameters where the melting is just enough."
The LLNL team found that the use of different powders affected densities at lower power, but not at higher power.
"Furthermore, for 316L stainless steel, at higher powers, the density is high over a wider range of scan speeds, unlike at lower powers," the article states. "This would indicate that higher powers could provide greater flexibility in choosing process parameters that optimize various properties of a manufactured part."
Although 316L stainless steel was used in this experiment, Kamath said the team's approach can be applied to other metal powders as well.
LLNL's findings will eventually be used to help certify properties of metal parts built using SLM. The paper is the first step in understanding how we can exploit computer simulations and a small number of carefully chosen experiments to efficiently determine the process parameters, Kamath said.
Their work, titled "Density of additively-manufactured, 316L SS parts using laser powder-bed fusion at powers up to 400W" was recently published in the International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology.
Posted in 3D Printing Technology
Maybe you also like:
- Aleph Objects releases LulzBot TAZ 4 3D printer
- 3D printing with FLX.ARM, a low-cost precision SCARA robot arm
- Lix 3D Printing Pen hits £30,000 Kickstarter goal in two hours
- Giant South African 3D printer prints entire frame of a RepRap Morgan
- Mamba3D open source 3D printer launches on Kickstarter
- Disney Research & CMU invent new 3D printer, printing Teddy Bear on demand
- 3D printed dresses hit the runway at Qingdao Fashion Week
- Multifunctional 3d printing delta robot ZeGo launching on Monday
- Malaysia's first 3D printer maker targeting 1,000 units per month production